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Resources and Links

  • In a small study of 17 NCAA Division 1 basketball players, increased mindfulness was associated with increased competitive free throw percentages.

  • In university student-athletes, “flow” state, a state of present-moment awareness (like mindfulness) that is associated with optimal athletic performance, was found to be related to greater self-reported concentration, control of attention, control of emotions, goal setting, self-talk, and lower self-report of self-consciousness.

  • A few studies suggested that mindfulness practice led to coach’s rating their student athletes as having increased performance, task-focused attention, and intensity during practice.

  • In a small study of NCAA Division 1 basketball players, participants in a mindfulness and yoga intervention reported greater goal-directed energy, less perceived stress, and greater mindfulness compared to a non-intervention control group.


  1. Gooding & Gardner, (2009)

  2. Kee & Wang, 2008; Nakamura
    & Csikszentmihalyi, (2005)

  3. Wolanin, (2005); Wolanin, Gardner,
    & Moore, (2003); Gardner & Moore, (2007); Lutkenhouse, Gardner,
    & Moore, (2007)

  4. Goodman, Kashdan, Mallard,
    & Schumann, (2014)

  5. Davidson, 2002

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